What is Pulsation Dampener and How Does It Work?

Pulsation dampeners are a kind of housing for the transmission system. The main function is to isolate and absorb mechanical energy from the operation of the powertrain, such as gears, bearings, pumps,…or prevent it in the first place.

what are pulsation dampeners

What are pulsation dampeners?

Pumps that use reciprocating positive displacement, such as reciprocating centrifugal pumps, have devices called pulse dampeners to control their output pulses. Through control of flow and pressure, they extend the life of hydraulic pumps. You can use pulsation dampeners to improve the overall performance and reliability of your pumping systems.

What do pulsation dampeners do?

A positive displacement pump’s reciprocating nature can cause pulsations and pressure gaps that affect the entire system at some point over time. Additionally, pressure gaps can be caused by pump check valves opening and closing. As with shock absorbers on a car, pulse dampeners minimize pipe rattle and pressure fluctuations by dampening hydraulic shocks. By reducing the energy in the pumped media, a solid pulsation dampener can increase the performance of the system’s additional tools.

Pulsation dampeners reduce the risk of damage to system components, particularly pipe welds and supports, by minimizing shock and excess movement. Pump efficiency, reliability, safety, and maintenance costs are all improved.

How do they do their work?

When used with reciprocating pumps, pulsation dampeners may use compression or exchange to reduce the energy being generated. In the old-fashioned gas-charged dampeners, either a liquid or gas is over a diaphragm, a bladder, or a cartridge to compress the gas. By compressing the gas associated with a reciprocating pump, the gas absorbs pressure spikes and smooths the flow of pumped media. Energy exchange dampeners are maintenance-free.

Maintainable pulsation control devices are commonly misunderstood as the pumped medium can absorb pressure spikes generated by reciprocating pumps. There is no truth to this. The pulsation dampeners, however, utilize the kinetic energy exchange mechanism. As kinetic energy is exchanged, the dampener from the reciprocating pump must have a large enough volume for dissipation to reduce adverse effects. For pulsation devices to be effective, they must have large amounts of fluid.

A pulsation dampener is used where?

Positive displacement pumps that discharge flow irregularly, and where the piping system does not want the pulses, are commonly dampened by pulse dampeners. The pulsation dampener is typically useful for double diaphragms, metering pumps, and hose/peristaltic pumps.

Typically, pulsation dampeners are categorized depending on their location within the system, and what they’re designed to do. Pulsation dampeners, for example, are located downstream of the pump, inlet stabilizers are located on the inlet side of the pump, and surge suppressors are located next to valves or other devices that restrict the flow.

Applications of pulse dampeners:

Since they will work with virtually all pressurized systems (pump systems), pulsation dampeners are used in a range of applications. Electronics or mechanical devices can be based on them, provided there is a need to:

  • Vibrations or hammering from pipes should be avoided.
  • To protect downstream instrumentation, minimize pulsations.
  • As a matter of process, minimize pulsations.
  • Ensure that the pump is not overloaded.
  • The use of pulsation dampeners is suitable for any industry that deals with fluid flow. High-pressure, high-temperature, corrosive, abrasive, and elevated pressure are just a few of the extreme environments in which they are engineered to perform.

Uses in the industry:

  • Manufacturing of chemicals and pharmaceuticals
  • Manufacturing food and beverages
  • Refining and prospecting for oil
  • Production of petrochemicals
  • Treatment of wastewater and distribution of water
  • Generation of electricity

Best ways to select a pulsation dampener?

It Is Critical to Size Pulsation Dampeners for Effectiveness

  1. Determine the Adequate Size.
  2. Identify the Tolerable Variation in Pressure.
  3. Do a Pressure Fluctuation Calculation.
  4. Reduce the acceleration head’s size.
  5. Styles of pulse dampeners.
  6. Make a calculation of pressure changes.
  7. The pump constant should be determined.

How do you calculate the dampener capacity?

The pump displacement per stroke is 1,717-mL or 0.187-l, calculated by multiplying the piston cross-sectional area by the stroke length. A rate of 80 percent of system pressure is recommended for the gas precharge.

Installing a pulsation dampener: how do you do it?

In-line dampeners should be installed as close as possible to the pump discharge/inlet or quick closing valves. Pump discharge/inlet or quick closing valve should not be more than ten pipe diameters away from the dampener installation. The dampener should be isolated from the system piping by an isolation valve.

Pulsation Dampeners FAQs

What is a pulsation dampener?

A pulsation dampener is a device that may minimize pulsations and vibrations in fluid-handling systems including pipelines, pumps, and meters. This type of device is also known as a vibration dampener. It contributes to the improvement of precision, the reduction of wear and tear, and the enhancement of efficiency.

How does a pulsation dampener work?

The pulsations in the fluid system are absorbed by a pulsation dampener by means of a flexible membrane or bladder, which is how the device is made to operate. The membrane in the dampener first expands to take up the pulsational energy of the fluid as it flows into the dampener, then it contracts to give that energy back to the system once it has been absorbed.

What types of fluids can be handled by a pulsation dampener?

Pulsation dampeners are able to handle a broad variety of fluids, including liquids, gases, and slurries, therefore they are a very versatile piece of equipment. They find widespread application in a variety of fields, including the oil and gas industry, the processing of chemicals, and the treatment of water.

How do I choose the right pulsation dampener for my system?

The flow rate, pressure, temperature, and viscosity of the fluid, as well as the size and kind of the pump or meter that is being utilized, are some of the aspects that need to be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate pulsation dampener for your system. You may pick the appropriate dampener for your particular application with the assistance of a qualified supplier or engineer if you consult with them.

How do I install and maintain a pulsation dampener?

Pulsation dampeners are normally inserted in the fluid system either directly in-line or off to the side. This is done so that the dampening effect may be maximized. It is essential to ensure that the dampener is installed correctly and maintained regularly in order to guarantee that it functions well and lasts for a very long period. It is important to follow the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer, and performing routine inspections and cleanings can help prevent problems such as clogging or damage to the membrane.

Final words:

Flow and pressure are stabilized in circuits with pumps using pulse dampeners (also known as pulsation dampeners). There are many applications for them. Pulsation dampeners contain dry nitrogen, which is normally used to dampen vibrations.

To achieve optimal performance, pulsation dampeners must be sized correctly. The key to dampener sizing is determining and using the correct pump constant factor. The pulsation dampener will sufficiently dampen pulsations, protecting equipment and keeping pressure pulses within design parameters as long as it is sized, positioned, and charged properly.

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